How to write an research paper conclusion
Acknowledgements Definition The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future research.
For most essays, one well-developed paragraph is sufficient for a conclusion, although in some cases, a two or three paragraph conclusion may be required. University of North Carolina.
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Importance of a Good Conclusion A well-written conclusion provides you with important opportunities to demonstrate to the reader your understanding of the research problem. Presenting the last word on the issues you raised in your paper. Just as the introduction gives a first impression to your reader, the conclusion offers a chance to leave a lasting impression. Do this, for example, by highlighting key points in your analysis or results or by noting important or unexpected implications applied to practice. Summarizing your thoughts and conveying the larger significance of your study.
The conclusion is an opportunity to succinctly answer the "So What? Identifying how a gap in the literature has been addressed. The conclusion can be where you describe how a previously identified gap in the literature [described in your literature review section] has been filled by your research. Demonstrating the importance of your ideas. The conclusion offers you the opportunity to elaborate on the impact and significance of your findings.
Introducing possible new or expanded ways of thinking about the research problem. This does not refer to introducing new information [which should be avoided], but to offer new insight and creative approaches for framing or contextualizing the research problem based on the results of your study. University of North Carolina; Kretchmer, Paul. Twelve Steps to Writing an Effective Conclusion. San Francisco Edit, Structure and Writing Style I. General Rules The function of your paper's conclusion is to restate the main argument.
It reminds the reader of the strengths of your main argument s and reiterates the most important evidence supporting those argument s. Do this by stating clearly the context, background, and necessity of pursuing the research problem you investigated in relation to an issue, controversy, or a gap found in the literature. Make sure, however, that your conclusion is not simply a repetitive summary of the findings.
This reduces the impact of the argument s you have developed in your essay. When writing the conclusion to your paper, follow these general rules: State your conclusions in clear, simple language. Re-state the purpose of your study then state how your findings differ or support those of other studies and why [i. Do not simply reiterate your results or the discussion of your results. Provide a synthesis of arguments presented in the paper to show how these converge to address the research problem and the overall objectives of your study Indicate opportunities for future research if you haven't already done so in the discussion section of your paper.
Highlighting the need for further research provides the reader with evidence that you have an in-depth awareness of the research problem. Consider the following points to help ensure your conclusion is presented well: If the argument or purpose of your paper is complex, you may need to summarize the argument for your reader. If, prior to your conclusion, you have not yet explained the significance of your findings or if you are proceeding inductively, use the end of your paper to describe your main points and explain their significance.
Move from a detailed to a general level of consideration that returns the topic to the context provided by the introduction or within a new context that emerges from the data. The conclusion also provides a place for you to persuasively and succinctly restate your research problem, given that the reader has now been presented with all the information about the topic. Depending on the discipline you are writing in, the concluding paragraph may contain your reflections on the evidence presented, or on the essay's central research problem.
However, the nature of being introspective about the research you have done will depend on the topic and whether your professor wants you to express your observations in this way. If asked to think introspectively about the topics, do not delve into idle speculation. Being introspective means looking within yourself as an author to try and understand an issue more deeply, not to guess at possible outcomes or make up scenarios not supported by evidence.
Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change. If your essay deals with a contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem. Return to the Opening A research paper should be circular in argument according to Ralph Berry in his click, The Research Project: It is always best practice to address important issues and fully explain your points in the body of your paper. State your conclusions in clear, simple language. Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results to recast it in new or important ways. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero. A conclusion is not merely a summary of the main topics covered or a re-statement of your research problem, but a synthesis of key points and, if applicable, where you recommend new areas for future how to write an research paper conclusion. After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education:
Developing a Compelling Conclusion Although an effective conclusion needs to be clear and succinct, it does not need to be written passively or lack a compelling narrative. Strategies to help you move beyond merely summarizing the key points of your research paper may include any of the following strategies: If your essay deals with a contemporary problem, warn readers of the possible consequences of not attending to the problem. Recommend a specific course or courses of action that, if adopted, could address a specific problem in practice or in the development of new knowledge.
Cite a relevant quotation or expert opinion already noted in your paper in order to lend authority to the conclusion you have reached [a good place to look is research from your literature review]. Explain the consequences of your research in a way that elicits action or demonstrates urgency in seeking change.
Moreover, it does not make any recommendation about which is the better design. Ask a question in your introduction. Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short.
Restate a key statistic, fact, or visual image to emphasize the ultimate point of your paper. If your discipline encourages personal reflection, illustrate your concluding point with a relevant narrative drawn from your own life experiences. Return to an anecdote, an example, or a quotation that you presented in your introduction, but add further insight derived from the findings of your study; use your interpretation of results to recast it in new or important ways.
Provide a "take-home" message in the form of a strong, succinct statement that you want the reader to remember about your study. Problems to Avoid Failure to be concise Your conclusion section should be concise and to the point. Conclusions that are too lengthy often have unnecessary information in them. The conclusion is not the place for details about your methodology or results.
Although you should give a summary of what was learned from your research, this summary should be relatively brief, since the emphasis in the conclusion is on the implications, evaluations, insights, and other forms of analysis that you make. Strategies for writing concisely can be found here.
Failure to comment on larger, more significant issues In the introduction, your task was to move from the general [the field of study] to the specific [the research problem]. However, in the conclusion, your task is to move from a specific discussion [your research problem] back to a general discussion [i. In short, the conclusion is where you should place your research within a larger context [visualize your paper as an hourglass--start with a broad introduction and review of the literature, move to the specific analysis and discussion, conclude with a broad summary of the how to write an research paper conclusion implications and significance].
Failure to reveal problems and negative results Negative aspects of the research process should never be ignored. Problems, drawbacks, and challenges encountered during your study should be summarized as a way of qualifying your overall conclusions.
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If you encountered negative or unintended results [i. Failure to provide a clear summary of what was learned In order to be able to discuss how your research fits back into your field of study [and possibly the world at large], you need to summarize briefly and succinctly how it contributes to new knowledge or a new understanding about the research problem. This element of your conclusion may be only a few sentences long. Failure to match the objectives of your research Often research objectives in the social sciences change while the research is being carried out. This is not a problem unless you forget to go back and refine the original objectives in your introduction.
As these changes emerge they must be documented so that they accurately reflect what you were trying to accomplish in your research [not what you thought you might accomplish when you began].
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Resist the urge to apologize If you've immersed yourself in studying the research problem, you presumably should know a good deal about it, perhaps even more than your professor! Nevertheless, by the time you have finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you have produced. Don't undermine your authority by saying something like, "This is just one approach to examining this problem; there may be other, much better approaches that Writing the Conclusion Chapter: The Good, the Bad and the Missing. Department of Geography, University of Liverpool; Concluding Paragraphs. College Writing Center at Meramec.
Louis Community College; Conclusions. University of North Carolina; Conclusions. The Writing Lab and The OWL. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Leibensperger, Summer.
- Thus, you do not want to introduce any new ideas, but rather recap everything throughout the rest of your piece of writing.
- Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization.
- Furthermore, the writer does not use impersonal language.
Academic Center, the University of Houston-Victoria, ; Make Your Last Words Count. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Tips for Writing a Good Conclusion. Colorado State University; Kretchmer, Paul. San Francisco Edit, ; Writing Conclusions. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning.
Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Writing Tip Don't Belabor the Obvious! Avoid phrases like "in conclusion But readers can see by the tell-tale section heading and number of pages remaining to read, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your readers if you belabor the obvious. Another Writing Tip New Insight, Not New Information! Don't surprise the reader with new information in your conclusion that was never referenced anywhere else in the paper. If you have new information to present, add it to the discussion or other appropriate section of the paper.