How to write an economics research paper
Writing the Research Paper Good writing is as important as good research. If you cannot write well, the contribution of your research may be lost to everyone except yourself. Several of the books listed at the end of this guide will help you improve your writing. Once you have the substantive information for your paper, the four critical elements of writing are organization, style, documentation, and revision.
Organization A research paper includes the following components: In a thesis, the components are separated into chapters; in a term paper, they are divided into sections. The use of headings and subheadings drite chapters or sections makes it easier for the reader to follow the presentation.
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Style Strive for a clear well-organized presentation of your facts, theories, and analysis. The mainstay of economic writing is the simple declarative sentence.
Direct quotes must be enclosed within quotation marks and properly attributed to the author. Longer quotes may be set off in an indented paragraph instead of in quotation marks. Ressearch paraphrasing must be identified and properly attributed to the original author, e.
In particular, if you include a table or graph from another source in your paper, state the source including page number. Implicit in this discussion of documentation is the principle that you should always state the source of any prior writing you are using for your research paper. This applies even to your own work. For example, if your thesis expands on research done for a term paper, you should reference your earlier work appropriately so that the specific contribution of the thesis is clear.
Occasionally students will want to prepare a single paper for two purposes, e. Before beginning, you must consult with both instructors, so that the concept of the paper is clear to all, and the separate contribution for each instructor is clearly defined. Documentation — Format Most Economics faculty strongly prefer the author-date-page method of documenting sources.
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This method is described in detail on page 16 of the Bates College Statement on Plagiarism and A Guide to Source Acknowledgments. The following are examples of appropriate citation of references within your text: Several writers have measured the costs of market power Scherer,pp. Page numbers are required for all exact quotes, and citations of statistics.
Page numbers are highly desirable in all other citations. When you use this citation method, the full bibliographic information on each source must appear wrjte your bibliography.
The use of the author-date-page method simplifies reference in the text. Footnotes are used for substantive comments only and not for reference. They may be typed either at the bottom of each page or as endnotes on a separate page following the entire text. The bibliography should include only materials how to write an economics research paper you psper have read, with one exception. For example, when you write: Cited in Tobinp.
Be aware that if you are using data in your paper, you may be asked to provide the data to your faculty sponsor in a format papef would enable replication of your results. This could be followed by the paragraphs which address the impact of falling interest rates. While these four dimensions are used by all professors in grading the paper, each professor will emphasize each one differently, and have other guidelines as well. For the novice researcher, it is useful to think of these two approaches as separate. Bibliography Your bibliography should list all references cited in the text.
The last phrase distinguishes Tobin from the works you have read personally. Here are some examples of the bibliography format you should use with the author-date-page citation method. Examples for books appear at the end of this guide Journal article: Subsidies to New Energy Sources: Do They Add to Energy Stocks? Journal of Political Economy, 89 5pp. Article in edited volume: The Monetary Dynamics of Hyper-inflation. In Friedman, Milton ed.
Studies in the Quantity Theory of Money. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, pp. Bureau of the Census. Wrire Abstract of the United States: Special paper is not required. A thesis also includes wrire table of contents showing chapter numbers, titles and the page on which each begins; it also lists appendices, bibliography, etc. A thesis may have a preface; a term paper does not.
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The preface may summarize the contribution of the thesis and contain any necessary acknowledgements. It follows the rwite page and precedes the table of contents. Tables, graphs and charts unless very short should be put on separate pages, and inserted in the paper at the appropriate place. For drafts and term papers, tables may be handwritten clearly on columnar paper.
For theses, tables must be typed. Put the source underneath each table or figure. Theses should be placed in a binder.
- Before beginning, you must consult with both instructors, so that the concept of the paper is clear to all, and the separate contribution for each instructor is clearly defined.
- In the example above, we assume that in the model, a change in population causes a change in the housing price.
- Williams, Jones, Smith, and Rogers use:
Term papers need not have a binder. In the absence of a binder, a staple and not a paper clip can be used to keep the paper together. Writr need to proofread click to see more research paper thoroughly before turning it in. Take special care in proofreading tables and equations. For thoroughness ask a friend to check while you read out the numbers.
Revision The final key to successful writing is revision. Once you have completed a first draft, set it aside for a while; then reread it with a critical eye, and rewrite to improve it.