Children with Apraxia and Reading, Writing, and Spelling Difficulties By Joy Stackhouse, Ph. It is not the case that all children with a history of speech and language difficulties have associated literacy problems. However, school-age children whose speech difficulties persist beyond 5 years of age are most at risk for associated difficulties in reading, spelling and sometimes maths. Let us first consider the nature of persisting speech difficulties with reference to a simple psycholinguistic model of speech processing.
This illustrates that we receive spoken information through the ear input. The information is then processed as it goes up the left hand side of the model and is stored at the top in a word store lexical representations. When we want to speak we can access stored information and programme it for speaking on the right hand side of the model output. Some children with speech difficulties have difficulties with speech input e.
Children with persisting difficulties, however, may well have source problems which involve all of these aspects of speech processing: This suggests a problem at one or more levels in the speech processing system depicted above. Typically developing children use this speech processing system not only to develop speech but also use their speech skills to develop another skill: You use your phonological awareness skills to play sound and rhyme games, e. CAT CAR; CAT BALL ; or producing a string of words which hpw with e. Children who find such games difficult, compared to their peers, often have problems with cracking the alphabetic code of languages such as English.
Cracking the code therefore involves not just knowing about letters and sounds but also recognising the sequence of sounds in a word, e. This phonological awareness is helped by being able to repeat words consistently and accurately to allow reflection on the structure of the word. Thus, children with persisting speech difficulties often need specific help not only with learning letter sounds and names but also with how these are combined in words through graded phonological awareness activities.
Clear and consistent speech production is particularly important for spelling or when iolustrated new vocabulary. Typically, spel asked how many syllables there are in a word another phonological awareness skillchildren repeat it, segment it out loud or in a whisper and then count the beats on their fingers. If they are not able to produce the right number of syllables in the word or if they cannot say the word in the same way on more than one occasion then they cannot spell it correctly or store it clearly.
How Paper is How do they get paper from trees You gotta have fiber. Over the centuries, paper has been made from a wide variety of materials -- wood pulp, rice, water plants, cotton, even old clothes. But no matter what you use to make paper -- you need "fiber. In fact, much of the paper we use every day is a blend of new and recycled fiber. From log to pulp. Much of the paper produced in Idaho is made from "waste" -- the tree parts from logging and sawmill operations that can't be made into lumber.
After harvesting, trees are cut into logs and are transported to the mill. At the mill, a debarker removes the bark from each log. The log is cut into boards of varying sizes. The wood that's left over is then converted into wood chips, about the size of corn flakes though not as tasty in milk. The wood chips are then put into "pulp digesters" where they are broken down by steam and chemicals into a gloppy pudding of cellulose fibers and other wood components.
In another process, the chemicals, wood resins, and wood lignin sort of a natural glue in the wood are removed. The cellulose fibers are cleaned and screened many times to get them ready to be made into paper. From pulp to paper. The paper pulp from wood chips, recycled paper, or both is fed into the paper-making machine. A pump sprays a thin layer of the liquid paper pulp onto a moving wire screen. How do they get paper from trees screen can be up to 20 feet wide, and can travel at speeds of 60 miles per hour. As the pulp is carried along by the screen, the water in it drops away, and the cellulose fibers become matted together, forming paper.
While the paper is still damp, it is fed through a series of heated rollers which press it and dry it. The paper is then spooled into huge rolls, cut into various sizes, and converted into paper products. From paper to more paper. Recycling paper helps make sure we get the most out of every tree we use. And it helps keep paper from clogging up our landfills.
Each time paper is recycled, the cellulose fibers get shorter, until eventually the paper won't hold together.
Rolling a Basic Joint 1 Choose your rolling paper. Choose thin rice or wheat straw paper in standard or king size. Plan to tear your paper down to size--wide and square is a good starting shape that offers versatility. You can get papers online, in convenience stores, at your dispensary, and at tobacco shops. If you plan to carry your papers around with you, get a rolling paper protector. Put your rolling papers in this metal case to prevent them from bending and tearing.
Gummed strips torn from a spare paper are great for mending tears, leaks, and gaps. Handle the flower heads with care to protect the delicate THC glands and use a weed grinder or wit scissors to break up the bud. Remove any seeds, stems, and leaves, and grind up the buds into smaller pieces. Larger buds burn more slowly, which will cause your joint to burn unevenly, while an excessively fine grind will make rolling more difficult. Store unused buds inside an airtight container in a cool, dry place. The amount of marijuana you'll need depends on how large the paper is.
Blunts take the most, usually ohw grams. Certain types of grinders have a special compartment to collect kief, which are the trichomes of the cannabis plant. Kief has a higher concentration of THC than of the flowers. Some people choose to sprinkle some kief over the marijuana before rolling for extra potency. This is optional, but some people add tobacco, leaf or another herbal smoking mixture to the bud so it can "breathe" in the joint.
This is how to make the fastest paper airplane I've ever seen. I call it the Eagle. Fold in Half This is an easy step. Just fold an 8. Fold the Cockpit Fold the cockpit of your paper how do you make paper airplane so that the flap corners meet at the center line. Fold the Cockpit Down Fold the cockpit down so that the point lines up with the center fold line.
Fold the 2nd Cockpit Fold your second cockpit by folding your tow flaps down like the 2nd step. Make the First Folds of the Wings Fold another two flaps down to the center of the plane. Starting to look like a real paper airplane now. The Second Folds of the Wings Flip the airplane over and fold each side in to line up with the center fold of the plane. Flip the plane over one last time and open up the folds so that you have the 'body' of the plane to hold on to like pictured.
You are now ready for a test flight. To fly well, fly inside and throw as hard as you can. DO NOT THROW AT AN ANIMAL OR HUMAN BEING. Bonus Step If you want your paper airplane to go even further, put a paperclip on the forward body of the plane.
These paper fan rosettes are so simple and so cheap to make. They can be made in any size and variety of patterns to coordinate with your own party decor. Patterned paper 3 pieces per fan how do you make paper fan decorations a hot glue gun. Fold each accordion piece in half. Repeat this 3 times. Smaller fans may only take sheets depending on size Note — You can fancy up your fans at this point by cutting the edges into a scallop, punching some holes, or lots other things to add some variety to your display.
Now secure sides together using a glue gun for extra hold. This decoations a part of the pinwheel. Glue all three pieces together edges out on sides to make one large piece. Stretch out your fan and glue the two ends together. You are finished, how easy was that. Love the variety of fan sizes and color of patterns.
You can also attach dowel rods to the back side of fans with hot glue to create centerpieces. Hope you have fun making your own paper dceorations rosettes, and please comment or share any tips you have used to make your own a little fancier too..
This type of question can come up in both GCSE and A-Level History papers. You must consistently analyse both your own knowledge and any other interpretations you include. You should have a sustained argument throughout, which you should first outline in your introduction. To ensure you give both sides of the debate but keep your own argument sustained, you should outline the weaknesses of the opposing arguments, showing how your argument in ultimately stronger than the others.
You could also consider breaking up the question: Howw far do you agree with this view. It seems likely that between and breaking up the time periodSino-Soviet relations were undermined by the personal rivalry which existed between Mao and Khrushchev rather than national interests.
These personal rivalries made meetings unproductive and led Mao to act in a way that the USSR could have perceived hou overconfident, raising tensions. However, fromwhen Khrushchev was disposed of, Sino-Soviet relations appear to have been ylu by problems arising from conflicting national interests. For example, the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia inwhich arguably stemmed from national interests, may have been interpreted by China as a clear message that the Communist world had to adhere to Soviet ideas, which they could have found quite threatening, undermining their relationship historical knowledge followed by analysis.
Nevertheless, it is also possible that Sino-Soviet relations were undermined in some minor ways by ideological differences in these years as they could have confirmed to the USSR that China was no link under their influence. Nevertheless, a closer examination reveals that ideological problems were underpinned by personal rivalries points to other arguments but shows why their own is ultimately stronger, ensuring their argument is sustained.
Therefore, overall, it seems most probable that Sino-Soviet relations were, to a great degree, undermined by personal rivalries between and .
Process for Making Paper Towels By Tyler Lacoma; Updated April 24, Making Pulp Paper towels are made in a manner very similar to commercial paper, with only a few extra steps. Like paper, the beginning materials are harvested from softwood trees, which produce long and even fibers that can be easily turned into smooth pulp. The bark is removed from the wood, and it it down here without carefully chipped into small pieces, which undergo a churning process with chemical additives. This process dissolve the bonds that the wood fibers formed with each other, separating them out until they become pulp.
Developing Pulp This pulp is a mixture of wood particles and water, and can be easily manipulated into a variety of shapes. Cardboard, paper and paper towels are all made from this pulp. But before it can be used for most purposes, it must first be put through several processes to clean and bleach it. Various contaminants and unnecessary particles are removed from the mixture, it is filtered through screeners to make sure the pulp is as fine as it can be, and a bleaching solution is used to whiten it.
The pulp is then put through several more machines designed to make it into paper. It's combined with a resin that causes the fibers to bond to each other once again, and then the pulp is rolled out into very thin layers so that when it does bond, it will be in the shape of paper. This paper is then run through more rollers that heat and dry it. This is the process used to create nearly every type of paper, while paper towels go through several more steps.
Bonding Paper Towels The paper used to create paper towels is not pressed as hard as other types of paper products to give it a gentle, softer texture. Two of these soft layers of paper are then carefully bonded together to form one sheet, usually with some type of light, harmless glue. At the same time, the layers are embossed so that small pockets of air are trapped within the sheets. These pockets help to absorb water, and the absorption qualities of the paper towel depend on the type of fibers used and how the sheets are embossed. Paper towels are available in both one- and two-ply varieties.
The two-ply variety is made of two different sheets that have been bonded together, while single-ply varieties have only one of the sheets made as described above. When it comes to the strength of paper towels, the most important factor is their composition, how the pulp has been bound together and what kind of resin has been used to do it.
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Paper Making Cai Lun, inventor of papermaking The invention of paper greatly contributed to the spread and development of civilization. Before its invention, bones, tortoise shells, and bamboo slips were all used as writing surfaces, but as Chinese civilization developed they proved themselves unsuitable because of their bulk and weight. Hemp fiber and silk were used to make paper but the quality was far from satisfactory. Besides, these two materials could be better used for other purposes so it was not practical to make paper from them.
Xue fu wu che is a Chinese idiom describing a learned man. The story behind it concerns a scholar named Hui Shi who lived during the Warring States Period. He needed five carts to carry his books when he traveled around teaching. Books at that time were made of wood or bamboo slips so they were heavy and occupied a lot of space. Reading at the time needed not only brainwork but also physical strength. Cai Lun, a eunuch during the Eastern Han Dynasty, invented paper from worn fishnet, bark and cloth.
These raw materials could be easily found at a much lower cost so large quantities of paper could be produced. A Korean Monk then took this skill with him to Japan in A. During a war between the Tang Dynasty and the Arab Empire, the Arabs captured some Tang soldiers and paper making workers. Here, a paper factory was set up by the Arabs. In the 11th Century the skill was carried to India when Click here monks journeyed there in search of Buddhist sutras.
Through the Arabs, Africans and Europeans then mastered the skill. The first paper factory in Europe was set up in Spain. In the latter half of the 16th century, this skill was brought to America. By the 19th century, when paper factories were set up in Australia, paper making had spread to the whole world. Cai Lun, also known as Tsai Lun, was listed in the book The A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History by Michael H.